The main goal of the PIONEERS project is to improve the safety of PTWs by providing an integrated approach to rider protection considering on-rider (personal protective equipment, PPE) and on-board systems.

To achieve this goal, the project has worked hard on PTWs accident analysis.

A literature review on body regions presented in projects or publications concerned with the analysis and prevention of accidents and injuries, especially of powered two-wheeler riders, showed that there is no common definition and understanding of “body regions”.

For example, sometimes the head is regarded together with the face, sometimes the head goes together with the neck, but excluding the face; further, the neck itself sometimes includes the cervical spine, and sometimes not.

For the definition of body regions for the PIONEERS project, three aims were followed:

  1. Questions towards PPE should be enabled to be answered
  2. The body regions should be communicable and easy to understand
  3. The body regions should be derivable from most of the available in-depth databases

As at least five providers of in-depth data are able to define body regions based on the 6-digit unique numerical identifier (UNI) of the AIS Code it was decided to use the AIS as a basis for definition. IGLAD and MAIDS analyses will need to remain on the AIS chapter level.

As a consequence of the aforementioned missing harmonized definitions for the body regions and the specific questions of the PIONEERS project dealing with PTW safety, new definitions have been defined, see in table below, which may be handled as standard for any future related work.

More details are available in our deliverable D1.1. Download it here:


Defining Body Regions by AIS © for Categorizing Injuries of Powered-Two-Wheelers – IRC-19-11 [Conference] // Proceedings of the International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI). – Florence, Italy : [s.n.], 2019